Archive for Android

Android repo sync error??

Posted in Android with tags , , , , , on March 21, 2011 by UnixmanLinuxboy

Today I tried re-syncing my gingerbread code to the latest version
so I fired

$ repo sync

And lo! I got the error message:

error: .repo/manifests/: contains uncommitted changes

After a bit of googling and going through the mailing lists, I finally found the solution:

1. Go to ./repo/manifests
2. $ git reset –hard
3. $ repo sync

[Please note that there are two dashes “- -” before ‘hard’]
And I am back in business.


Android Kernel module support. Running a simple hello-world kernel module in Android emulator

Posted in Android with tags , , , , on March 21, 2011 by UnixmanLinuxboy

I was playing with android code and suddenly I thought lets have a small exercise of learning android kernel compilation and loading modules in it.
The following are the steps which I did in order to recompile android kernel for my emulator, write a simple hello world module, compile it, push it to emulator and load it.

Read for some fun? Read on.

Download and compile GingerBread code

Go to and download the source code.
I downloaded the gingerbread branch
repo init -u git:// -b gingerbread
repo sync
and the usual commands to get your platform code…

Note: These days the android kernel source is removed from platform code.
So I need to download the kernel source too.
I went to;a=shortlog;h=refs/heads/android-goldfish-2.6.29 and downloaded the kernel for emulator.

Now, I compiled the platform code. (source /build/ && lunch 1 && make -j2)
Once the platform is built, I started building the linux kernel.

Compile Android kernel with module support

Android kernel, by default do not support loadable modules. So I needed to edit some files.
Here is what I did:

1. make ARCH=arm goldfish_defconfig (This will create our .config)
2. Edit the .config file and searched for the line “CONFIG_MODULES”
It was unset for me and the line looked liked this
# CONFIG_MODULES is not set
I changed the line to CONFIG_MODULES=y, saved and closed the file.
3. Now, I fired the command to build the kernel
make ARCH=arm CROSS_COMPILE=~/timepass/mydroid/prebuilt/linux-x86/toolchain/arm-eabi-4.4.3/bin/arm-eabi-

Important: Replace “~/timepass/mydroid” with your KERNEL SOURCE TREE
Note: This command might ask for the following

scripts/kconfig/conf -s arch/arm/Kconfig
* Restart config...
* General setup
Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers (EXPERIMENTAL) [Y/n/?] y
Local version - append to kernel release (LOCALVERSION) []
Automatically append version information to the version string (LOCALVERSION_AUTO) [Y/n/?] y
Support for paging of anonymous memory (swap) (SWAP) [Y/n/?] y
System V IPC (SYSVIPC) [Y/n/?] y
POSIX Message Queues (POSIX_MQUEUE) [N/y/?] n
BSD Process Accounting (BSD_PROCESS_ACCT) [N/y/?] n
Export task/process statistics through netlink (EXPERIMENTAL) (TASKSTATS) [N/y/?] n
Auditing support (AUDIT) [N/y/?] n
Kernel .config support (IKCONFIG) [Y/n/m/?] y
Enable access to .config through /proc/config.gz (IKCONFIG_PROC) [Y/n/?] y
Kernel log buffer size (16 => 64KB, 17 => 128KB) (LOG_BUF_SHIFT) [16] 16
Group CPU scheduler (GROUP_SCHED) [Y/n/?] y
Group scheduling for SCHED_OTHER (FAIR_GROUP_SCHED) [Y/n] y
Group scheduling for SCHED_RR/FIFO (RT_GROUP_SCHED) [Y/n/?] y
Basis for grouping tasks
1. user id (USER_SCHED)
> 2. Control groups (CGROUP_SCHED)
choice[1-2]: 2
Create deprecated sysfs layout for older userspace tools (SYSFS_DEPRECATED_V2) [N/y/?] n
Kernel->user space relay support (formerly relayfs) (RELAY) [N/y/?] n
Namespaces support (NAMESPACES) [Y/?] y
UTS namespace (UTS_NS) [N/y/?] n
IPC namespace (IPC_NS) [N/y/?] n
User namespace (EXPERIMENTAL) (USER_NS) [N/y/?] n
PID Namespaces (EXPERIMENTAL) (PID_NS) [N/y/?] n
Network namespace (NET_NS) [N/y/?] n
Initial RAM filesystem and RAM disk (initramfs/initrd) support (BLK_DEV_INITRD) [Y/n/?] y
Initramfs source file(s) (INITRAMFS_SOURCE) []
Optimize for size (CC_OPTIMIZE_FOR_SIZE) [Y/n/?] y
Default panic timeout (PANIC_TIMEOUT) [0] 0
Enable the Anonymous Shared Memory Subsystem (ASHMEM) [Y/n/?] y
Disable heap randomization (COMPAT_BRK) [Y/n/?] y
Choose SLAB allocator
> 1. SLAB (SLAB)
2. SLUB (Unqueued Allocator) (SLUB)
choice[1-2?]: 1
Profiling support (EXPERIMENTAL) (PROFILING) [N/y/?] n
Kprobes (KPROBES) [N/y/?] (NEW) ---------- I said N here
* Enable loadable module support
Enable loadable module support (MODULES) [Y/n/?] y
Forced module loading (MODULE_FORCE_LOAD) [N/y/?] (NEW) y
Forced module unloading (MODULE_FORCE_UNLOAD) [N/y/?] (NEW) y
Module versioning support (MODVERSIONS) [N/y/?] (NEW) y
Source checksum for all modules (MODULE_SRCVERSION_ALL) [N/y/?] (NEW) y
* Memory Technology Device (MTD) support
Memory Technology Device (MTD) support (MTD) [Y/n/m/?] y
Debugging (MTD_DEBUG) [N/y/?] n
MTD concatenating support (MTD_CONCAT) [N/m/y/?] n
MTD partitioning support (MTD_PARTITIONS) [N/y/?] n
MTD tests support (MTD_TESTS) [N/m/?] (NEW) n
* User Modules And Translation Layers
Direct char device access to MTD devices (MTD_CHAR) [Y/n/m/?] y
Common interface to block layer for MTD 'translation layers' (MTD_BLKDEVS) [Y] y
Caching block device access to MTD devices (MTD_BLOCK) [Y/n/m/?] y
FTL (Flash Translation Layer) support (FTL) [N/m/y/?] n
NFTL (NAND Flash Translation Layer) support (NFTL) [N/m/y/?] n
INFTL (Inverse NAND Flash Translation Layer) support (INFTL) [N/m/y/?] n
Resident Flash Disk (Flash Translation Layer) support (RFD_FTL) [N/m/y/?] n
NAND SSFDC (SmartMedia) read only translation layer (SSFDC) [N/m/y/?] n
Log panic/oops to an MTD buffer (MTD_OOPS) [N/m/y/?] n
* Meilhaus support
Meilhaus support (MEILHAUS) [N/m/?] (NEW) n
* Staging drivers
Staging drivers (STAGING) [Y/n/?] y
Exclude Staging drivers from being built (STAGING_EXCLUDE_BUILD) [N/y/?] n
Line Echo Canceller support (ECHO) [N/m/y/?] n
Data Acquision support (comedi) (COMEDI) [N/m/?] (NEW) n
* Cryptographic API
Cryptographic API (CRYPTO) [Y/?] y
* Crypto core or helper
FIPS 200 compliance (CRYPTO_FIPS) [N/y/?] n
Cryptographic algorithm manager (CRYPTO_MANAGER) [Y/?] y
GF(2^128) multiplication functions (EXPERIMENTAL) (CRYPTO_GF128MUL) [N/m/y/?] n
Null algorithms (CRYPTO_NULL) [N/m/y/?] n
Software async crypto daemon (CRYPTO_CRYPTD) [N/m/y/?] n
Authenc support (CRYPTO_AUTHENC) [Y/?] y
Testing module (CRYPTO_TEST) [N/m/?] (NEW) n
* Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data
CCM support (CRYPTO_CCM) [N/m/y/?] n
GCM/GMAC support (CRYPTO_GCM) [N/m/y/?] n
Sequence Number IV Generator (CRYPTO_SEQIV) [N/m/y/?] n

Once I answered, the compilation continued and now I had a zImage of kernel with loadble module support.

Write and compile a simple hello-world module

At this point I have kernel with module support and compiled platform. So without much ado I fired up the emulator.

export ANDROID_PRODUCT_OUT=~/mydroid/out/
$ ./emulator -system ~/mydroid/out/target/product/generic/system.img -kernel ~/goldfish_kernel/arch/arm/boot/zImage -data ~/mydroid/out/target/product/generic/userdata.img -ramdisk ~/mydroid/out/target/product/generic/ramdisk.img -skindir ~/mydroid/sdk/emulator/skins/ -skin HVGA -verbose -show-kernel

Once emulator is up, I wrote the simple “Hello-world” module: Source is as follows:

1 #include"linux/module.h"
2 #include"linux/kernel.h"
3//replace the "" with angular brackets
4 int init_module(void)
5 {
6 printk(KERN_INFO "Hello android kernel...\n");
7 return 0;
8 }
10 void cleanup_module(void)
11 {
12 printk(KERN_INFO "Goodbye android kernel...\n");
13 }

I saved the file as android_module.c

Kernel modules as we know have to be compiled slightly differently than traditional programs.
My makefile for this simple module is as follows:

1 obj-m += android_module.o
3 all:
4 make -C /home/user/android_goldfish_kernel/goldfish-2.6.29/ M=$(PWD) modules
6 clean:
8 make -C /home/user/android_goldfish_kernel/goldfish-2.6.29/ M=$(PWD) clean

Now we are ready to compile our android kernel module

CROSS_COMPILE=/home/user/mydroid/prebuilt/linux-x86/toolchain/arm-eabi-4.4.3/bin/arm-eabi- ARCH=arm make

Once compilation is done, I got android_module.ko

Push the module inside emulator and execute it

I pushed the newly build module inside emulator by:

adb push android_module.ko /data/local

Now that my module is inside the emulator which was already running kernel with module support, I opened a shell by:

adb shell

Inside this emulator shell prompt, I navigated to /data/local and executed
insmod android_module.ko
rmmod android_module

The result is

android_module: module license 'unspecified' taints kernel.
Hello android kernel...
Goodbye android kernel...

If you have any doubt, please feel free to drop a comment here 🙂

“adb devices” shows “??????? no permissions”

Posted in Android with tags , , , , , , , on February 24, 2011 by UnixmanLinuxboy

Environment: Ubuntu 10.04
adb 1.0.26

$adb devices
??????????? no permissions

This is because the udev is unable to determine the permissions for this USB device.
The udev is the program that the OS uses to dynamically control the devices. As soon as a device is plugged into, udev detects it and creates device files on-the-fly.

The android debug bridge (adb) is a the daemon program that allows you to talk to device. It uses network sockets.

The “no permissions” error is because the daemon is unable to determine the right permissions to access the device as the user that it is running as. Unless the phone device appears in the udev infrastructure with correct permissions to be accessed as the user you are logged in as, it won’t work.

The solution:

1. Plug your android phone to your system.
2. Verify that you can see your phone by using “lsusb”
$ lsusb
Bus 008 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
Bus 007 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
Bus 006 Device 003: ID 0461:4d22 Primax Electronics, Ltd
Bus 006 Device 002: ID 413c:2106 Dell Computer Corp.
Bus 006 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
Bus 005 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
Bus 004 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
Bus 003 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0001 Linux Foundation 1.1 root hub
Bus 002 Device 010: ID XXXX:YYYY Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd
Bus 002 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub

The line
Bus 002 Device 010: ID XXXX:YYYY Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd
is our phone, rest of the lines can be ignored…

3. The ID XXXX is the Vendor ID of my phone and YYYY is its Device ID. 002 is the BUS number and 010 is the Device number.
Note: These numbers may be different for your phone. So do not panic.

4. Now, type the following command in terminal
$ udevadm info –attribute-walk –name=/dev/bus/usb/002/010

Note: This will provide a lot of output as this command walks up the usb bus. If you have not connected any other device after you connected your phone, it is likely that the first entry would be of your device.
Typical output will be like thilooking at device ‘/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1d.7/usb2/2-5’:

The serial number here will appear when this all works.

5. Now, lets set udev rules.
Go to /etc/udev/rules.d/ directory and create a new file with name 99-android.rules

Note: In order to perform this activity, you need to be root or use sudo.

6. edit the file you created in step 5 with the following content:

SUBSYSTEM==”usb”, SYSFS{idVendor}==”XXXX”, OWNER=”yourUserName” GROUP=”yourGroupName”, MODE=”666″

7: Save and close it.

8: Reconnect the device and check the permissions…

$ ls -l /dev/bus/usb/bus-number/device-number


Feel free to comment if you find anything that is not working. I will try to help you